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What Should Every Man Know About Sperm?

psychiatrist, sexologist, psychotherapist
  • Published:
    07 February 2023
  • Updated:
    08 November 2023

Spermatogenesis is the process by which male sex cells develop and transform into sperm cells. This process takes place inside the seminal tubules, which fill the testicles of an adult male by 90%.

The inner walls of the seminal tubules contain two types of cells:

  • Early ones, from which adult spermatozoa are subsequently formed, are called spermatogonia.
  • Sertoli cells.

The development of sperm, under the influence of sex hormones, begins during puberty in adolescence. This process is not interrupted throughout life, for a precise rhythm and uniform intensity define it. The transformation of spermatogonia into sperm occurs within 75 days. During this time, a set of spermatogonia chromosomes divide by mitosis and form spermatocytes of the first order.

Then, in the process of successive (meiotic) divisions, spermatocytes of the second order are formed, and then there are spermatids, the cells that precede the spermatozoon. All these divisions halve the number of chromosomes (reduction). At the final stage of sperm formation, spermatids are transformed into spermatozoa due to prolonged differentiation (division).

Elongated cells appear in the seminal tubules. In the change process, the cell nucleus forms the sperm head with a neck and tail of the cytoplasmic envelope. The final stage is when the sperm head adheres to the Sertoli cells, which "feed" them and promote full maturation.

Mature sperm penetrates the lumen of the testicular tubules and, from there to the appendage, having accumulated in sufficient quantities, are excreted during ejaculation.

The process of sperm formation in the male body is sensitive to external and internal influences that affect the quality and quantity of sperm. As a result, there are problems with conception. Read about this in the article "Smartphones and Male Fertility".

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